resistance against the American invaders
occurred not only in Jolo Island but was
also felt in the other domain of the
Moro natives in mainland Mindanao. The
'Battle of Bayan in Lanao' on May 1902
registered to be one of the most
significant Bangsamoro armed struggles
against American colonialism. This was
followed by the series of fierce battles
in Taraca in 1904, Sisiman in 1921,
Tugaya and Garassi in 1923 up to 1935
until 1941. The American-Moro
hostilities were characterized by the 'cota
wars' around Lake Lanao when the first
creeping shade of Philippine colonialism
took shape in the American-installed
Philippine Commonwealth regime under the
anti-Muslim President Manuel L. Quezon.
In other areas of
Mindanao, particularly Cotabato and
Palawan, the Moro natives led by Datu
Ali, Datu Santiago, Acbara and Imam
Mahdi also fought the American invaders.
Similar to the Spanish invaders before
them, the American colonizers also
utilized Filipino colonial slaves as
foot soldiers in their ugly war of
depredations in Mindanao. Unable to
subdue the More freedom fighters with
the sham 'benevolent assimilation'
policy and various 'carrot and stick'
colonial stratagem, the American
invaders conducted the worst genocide
war during their colonial conquest
campaigns against the Muslim and other
indigenous natives of Mindanao. The
American war of extermination in
Moroland was characterized by repeated
massacres of both Moro combatants and
non-combatants, including the aged,
women and children.
Amongst the worst
genocidal war of extermination against
the Moro natives perpetrated by the
American occupation soldiers in Jolo
island was in the 'battle of Bud Dajo'
on March, 1906 and the 'Battle of Bud
Bagsak' on June 11-15, 1913. Both
encounters were literally a massacre of
the heinous kind.
The ugliness of
the 'battle of Bud Dajo' even led the
famous American writer, Mark Twain, to
consciously protest in 1910. This was to
immortalize the cruelty, savagery and
barbarism of American colonial conquest
in Moroland. He wrote the following few
"Mark Twain, A Pen
Warmed-up in Hell, Mark Twain in Protest
"A tribe of Moros,
dark skinned savages, had fortified
themselves in the bowl of an extinct
crater not many miles from Jolo; and as
they were hostile, and bitter against us
because we have been trying for eight
years to take their liberties away from
them...General Wood's order had been to
'kill or capture those savages'...The
enemy numbered six hundred - including
women and children - and we abolished
them utterly, leaving not even a baby
alive to cry for his dead mother."
Thus, to this very
day, the short chronicle of the other
historically known 'battle in the
clouds' highlighted in "Mark
Twain, Grief and Mourning for the
Night", hence, is always commemorated by
the Bangsamoro students, researchers and
professionals in universities and
colleges as one of Tausugs' darkest days
under American colonialism.
In the 'Battle of
Bud Bagsak' on June 11-15, which lasted
for five days, more than 2,000 Moro
freedom fighters died that included
helpless women and children.
war event in Jolo island is clearly
described in the book, "THE BANGSAMORO
PERSPECTIVE: Search For A Peaceful
Mindanao", authored by Ibrahim S. Omar,
"The Mount Bagsak
battle was literally a 'massacre.'
Arrayed against the gruesome U.S.
military terror machine, more than 2,000
Moro resistant fighters and civilian
family members died, including 196 women
and 360 children"
'battle' was personally led by U.S.
Brig. Gen. John 'Black Jack' J. Pershing
of the 8th Infantry and Philippine
Scouts against Moro freedom fighters
armed mostly with kris, barung, budjak
(spear) and few guns. In many other
battles in Moroland, the courageous
free-loving Moro fighters were proven to
be unstoppable by the 0.38 caliber
pistol and other rifles which led the
American colonizers to invent the more
powerful 0.45 caliber pistol."
In short, the
colonial American war of conquest
against the Bangsamoro people of
Mindanao never did contribute success to
the U.S. government to cage the Muslim
and Lumad natives into settlements
befallen the sovereign aboriginal Indian
natives of North America.
original Spanish-born Christian
Filipinos and the Christianized Indios-converted-Filipinos,
who wholeheartedly embraced a mixture of
Hispanic-American culture and attitude,
the Moros maintained the preservation of
their rich and colourful culture because
of their deep affiliation to the
universal community of Islam (Dar
al-Islam). This perhaps is one basic
reason why the Christian-conscious
American leadership decided in designing
Moroland to be colonized in turn by the
Christian Catholic Filipinos.
Thus, no matter
how hard the American colonizers tried
to change the Moros' way of life to
conform to the outlandish western
outlook and attitude, they never
succeeded. The Bangsamoro people to the
very end of American colonialism refused
to become subservient colonial slaves of
Filipino stooges, registering both both
formal and violent protest.
For more than
forty years, the Bangsamoro masses tied
down the combined American and hired
Filipino invaders in a protracted and
bloody war in Mindanao. Thus, amongst
the Moro freedom fighters deserving
distinct honour in the history of the
Bangsamoro people's resistance to
American invasion are the likes of Datu
Ampuan Aguas of Lanao, Datu Ali of
Cotabato and Panglima Hassan of Sulu.
PART III - DARK
ROAD TO AMERICA-DESIGNED PHILIPPINE